Since the establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, implemented in 1948) and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO, established in 1995), global tariff rates have fallen significantly and world trade has expanded. The WTO contains provisions on reciprocal conditions, most-favoured-nation status and national treatment of non-tariff restrictions. It has contributed to the architecture of the most comprehensive and important multilateral trade agreements of modern times. These trade agreements and their representative institutions are the North American Free Trade Agreement (1993) and the European Free Trade Association (1995). A certain prognosis is that international trade agreements will continue to be controversial. Thematic funding can be implemented for virtually any objective, including technologies to improve social well-being through means other than improving productivity, for example. B by responding to “social needs”. The main restriction of this draft directive is to indicate the content of the programme. A very broad definition requires less expertise to write the invitation to proposals or “invitations” and greater expertise to evaluate the proposals received. One way to deal with this is to submit proposals for peer review, in the hope that a peer review panel with sufficient expertise can be found. .